International Journal of Engineering Research in Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IJERMCE)

Monthly Journal for Mechanical and Civil Engineering

Volume2,April 2017,

Topic : Advances in Aircraft Mechanical Systems and Components

Authors:G. BhavaniSankar || H. N. Bhaskar

Abstract:Aircraft is a complex system of systems. Structural elements are complemented by the Avionics and Mechanical Systems. Avionics would provide the communications, navigation, other control functions and commands. The Mechanical Systems would execute these and provide the power to realize a safe flight starting from takeoff to landing. Each system has its role to play in the successful mission of the aircraft’s each flight. Each system will have sub-systems and components to achieve their functional requirements and meeting the reliability, maintainability and safety (RMS) requirements. It is a known fact that many technological advances originate from the Aerospace industry and trickle down to other walks of life. In recent years, the aviation business has entered a major growth period with increased air transportation demand projected for the future. On the other hand, the rising awareness of environmental issues on a global scale necessitates a reduction in substances of concern i.e. decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, as the international demand for fuel increases, fuel prices are rising, and the aviation business is urgently requesting better fuel efficiency for economic reasons as well. There is also serious research happening in the area of alternate fuel, fuel cell and all electric aircraft. These needs, currently drive the requirement for newer technology and changes in how aircrafts are made and flown. Thus energy consumption of each system is one area that is scrutinized closely. Going one step ahead the exergy analysis to minimize the entropy generation by these systems and to curtail the endogenous avoidable and exogenous avoidable parts of the exergy destruction occurring in each component are extensively used in Propulsion System and ECS development. Weight reduction is another important aspect in all these systems. Landing Gear System (LGS) weight is generally about 4.0% of the aircraft take-off weight. Developments like equipping composite braces on the main landing gear, electrically actuated Landing Gear are some examples of weight reduction in LGS. Advances in these systems not only aim at improving inflight performance but also look into the energy and fuel saving during ground handling, maintenance and thus reducing life cycle cost. This paper details the technology and the innovations that have gone in to evolving these systems over the years both at system level and component level. The paper also looks into the emerging trends in the design and development of these systems. The trends in developing new configurations, evolving the new systems’ architecture, meeting the demanding new requirements at component and system level, using latest software resources for mathematical modeling and simulation, conducting rigorous tests at component and system level at ground and flight test phases and finally meeting the certification requirements are touched upon..

Keywords: Aircraft Mechanical Systems, Environmental Control System, Fuel System, Hydraulic System, Landing Gear System

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DOI: 01.1617/vol4/iss4/pid64120


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Meinhard Taher Schobeiri
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Texas A & M University, USA.

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