Author : Rounak Kare 1
Date of Publication :16th September 2022
Abstract: Beams with large depth in relation to span are known as deep beams. Transfer girders, offshore structures and deep foundations frequently employ deep beams. An established design technique for dealing with D-regions (Discontinuous regions) is the strut-and-tie model. The Strut-and-Tie modeling approach is an analysis and design tool for reinforced concrete elements which assumes that internal stresses in a member are transferred through a truss mechanism. The tensile ties and compressive struts connected by nodal zones form the truss members. The truss idealized by strut-and-tie model indirectly account for distribution of both shear and flexure. A diaphragm in a box girder bridge forms the component in a box girder bridge which strengthens the box girder with respect to torsion and transmits shear to the bearings. Due to the diaphragm having a small span-to-depth ratio and presence of a discontinuity (opening) makes it a D-region. Due to a lack of experience with the design process, the difficulty to validate truss models (using a finite element model), and the length of time it takes to perform strut and tie model design and analysis, bridge architects have yet to fully comprehend the strut and tie model. Consequently, a well defined strut and tie modeling technique will help bridge designers feel more at ease using the design method. This paper presents a uniform design procedure for employing strut-and-tie model for box girder diaphragms that can be practiced by designers
- AASHTO LRFD (1998) Bridge design specifications, 2nd edn. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington DC
- Ritter, W.: The hennebique design method (Die NauweiseHennebique) (1899)
- Schlaich. J.; Weischede,D detailing of reinforced concrete structures. Canadian Structural Concrete Conference, Department of civil engineering, University of Toronto.
- Liang QQ, Xie YM, Steven GP (2002) Performance-based optimisation for strut-tie modeling of structural concrete. J StructEng
- schlaich J, Scha¨fer K, Jennewein M (1987) Toward a consistent design of structural concrete. J PrestressConcrInst 32(3):74–150
- Ahmed S, Ahmed E-S (2016) Experimental verification of strut-and-tie model for HSC deep beams without shear reinforcement. ENgStruct 117:71 85
- Yun YM, Ramirez JA (1996) Strength of struts and nodes in strut-tie model. J StructEng 122:20–29
- A Review on Strut and Tie Methods Kannan C Bhanu1* , N Ganesan2 and P V Indira3  Analysis and Design of Simply Supported Deep Beams Using Strut and Tie Method Praveen Nagarajan* and T. M. Madhavan Pillai
- IRC: 6-2017 : Standard Specifications and code of practice for road bridges Section II: Loads and Load Combinations
- IRC 112-2011 : Code of practice for Concrete Road Bridges.